Has contemporary Urdu poetry lost its essence?

A shrinking creativeness and a lack of philosophical considering have contributed to the downfall of Urdu poetry

In Urdu literature, historically two ideas have remained dominant in terms of the place creativity emanates from. The primary is amad (spontaneity) and 2d is awrad (contrived). For a very long time, the vast majority of Urdu writers, and the socio-cultural ethos usually, tilted extra against the amad idea, with Mirza Ghalib writing,

“Aate hain ghaib se ye mazaameen khayaal mein

Ghalib  sareer-e-Khaama nawaa-e-sarosh hai…”

(The topics (for my poetry) come to me from divine hidden assets,

The scratching sound my pen makes resonates just like the sound of angels)

There have been a number of writers who grappled with those concepts in Urdu literature, alternatively they weren’t officially conceptualised till Muhammad Hussain Azad, Altaf Hussain Hali and Shibli Nomani started to interact with those ideas. They had been those who laid the basis of contemporary literary grievance in Urdu literature. Then again, the very rules which underpinned poetic concept in Urdu are actually underneath risk.

Nowadays, sadly, a substantial amount of poetry in Pakistan incorporates imitation sans concept. That is towards the Aristotelian thought of imitation in which an artist internalises the method of imitation to conceive an concept inside the thoughts after which creates a murals via using their creativeness. There is not any doubt that emotions and feelings play a very powerful position in poetry, however they continue to be discordant and chaotic until they’re introduced inside of an inventive framework. Fredrich Nietzsche in his e book The Beginning of Tragedy mentioned that creativity manifests itself in two tactics: Dionysian and Apollonian. Nietzsche was once of the view that the tragic poetry of historic Greece was once born out of a unprecedented cooperation between the Dionysian spirit of ecstatic intoxication, which imbues the paintings with power and keenness, and the Apollonian spirit, which is the form-giving drive that creates unity. It is very important clutch this prior to one makes an attempt to take on the poetry of Allama Iqbal since since he attempted to harness the Dionysian power.

Dr Khalifa Abdul Hakeem in his e book ‘Fikar-e-Iqbal’ turns out to indicate that Iqbal’s poetry is encouraged extra via Dionysian zeal than his Apollonian spirit. Hakeem contextualises Nietzsche’s thought of Dionysian ecstatic intoxication within the Muslim context via endorsing Nomani’s favour of Arab poets who via their poems impressed warriors to battle fearlessly with standard Dionysian interest. Right here we will be able to obviously see a cut up within the concept and poetry of Iqbal. Then again, the aim of this isn’t to degrade the standard of his paintings however to as an alternative try to establish the locus the place poetic concept diverges from rational concept. Each poetic and philosophical concept explains the similar stories via the similar medium however with other teleologies.

Knowledge comes via a cultivation of unified sensibilities. With a purpose to perceive the quagmire Urdu writing in Pakistan is recently in, it’s useful to distinction our present catch 22 situation with the literary concepts which got here to outline Germany literature. The writings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Holderlin, Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Heinrich Wilhelm von Kliest, Gunter Grass and lots of extra had been steeped in philosophical ideas – a perception which Urdu poetry seems to be more and more bereft of.

Poetry sans concepts supplies best excitement with out finishing in knowledge. Then again, Urdu poetry these days isn’t the one sufferer of this poverty of concepts and is if truth be told emblematic of the overall highbrow situation of the area. Once we take inventory of the pre-modern length of Urdu literature, we see darbars (courts) of kings and rulers full of legions of poets competing with each and every different via enjoying with phrases and composing poetry with out a lot concept. Within the courtroom of Bahadur Shah Zafar we discover poets indulging in standard jealousies, and scheming to win his favour via poetry. However we can’t to find many example right through those occasions the place thinkers had been debating over the guidelines associated with humanities, science, philosophy and different fields of data. This drawback has best grow to be additional exacerbated with time, therefore ensuing it the present catch 22 situation which Urdu poetry faces these days.

When Azad and Hali began their undertaking of literary modernism, they sought after to infuse new concepts into poetry via introducing contemporary topics and remodeling the trendy literary canon. In a lecture in 1874, Azad recommended writers to emancipate poetry from conventional enclosures and shackles, differently, he warned, “an afternoon will arrive when your offspring will to find their language with none hint of poetry.” Thereafter, Urdu witnessed some high quality poetry that synthesised the breadth of concept, profundity of emotions, and the sublimity of creativeness. All over the mid 20th century, Urdu poetry enriched the poetic oeuvre of Urdu literature via living upon a rising disenchantment with the trendy international. However now that wave is living at the peripheries, and the fresh literary panorama of Urdu poetry is more and more akin to a desolate tract. Two elements have contributed to to this worrisome state of affairs – a shrinking creativeness and a lack of philosophical considering. When a poet ceases to take in new streams of data, this best serves to restrict their imaginative horizons.

Abdul Rahman in his e book ‘Ma’rrat ul Shair’ feedback upon how each those elements have contributed against the poverty of poetry. Consistent with Rahman, best when a poet’s corpus of data is huge will he be capable of to find an abundance of that means and metaphors. He writes,

“Between considerate and vulgar poetry you’ll at all times discover a huge spectrum of concepts within the former, and narrowness and paucity of concepts within the latter. The only which addresses wider concepts will repeat the similar concept loads of occasions however at all times specific them in a unique manner with new that means. Alternatively, the only which adheres to a slim spectrum of concepts will fail to take action.”

Due to this fact, a lot of the poetry in Pakistan these days is located to be missing since the fountains of philosophy have nearly dried up. In consequence, whilst our hearts are nonetheless saturated with feelings, our minds are turning into more and more bereft of philosophic concept. Urdu poetry these days wishes a reconciliation between concept and feeling via developing a brand new romanticism through which each poetry and philosophy can as soon as once more start to tell one some other. That is crucial if we need to recapture the honour of Urdu poetry.

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