From 9/11, to intense combating at the floor, and now complete withdrawal of US-led forces, right here’s what came about.
Al-Qaeda, led by way of Osama Bin Encumbered in Afghanistan, carries out the biggest terror assault ever carried out on US soil.
4 industrial airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the International Business Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon development in Washington, and one crashes right into a box in Pennsylvania. Just about 3,000 individuals are killed.
First air moves
A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda amenities in Afghanistan. Goals come with Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad.
The Taliban, who took energy after a decade-long Soviet career was once adopted by way of civil warfare, refuse at hand over Bin Encumbered. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter plane are destroyed.
Fall of Kabul
The Northern Alliance, a bunch of anti-Taliban rebels sponsored by way of coalition forces, enters Kabul because the Taliban flee the town.
By means of the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have both fled or been neutralised. Different towns temporarily fall.
After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand meeting, the brand new Afghan charter is signed into legislation. The charter paves the way in which for presidential elections in October 2004.
Hamid Karzai turns into president
Hamid Karzai, the chief of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, turns into the primary president beneath the brand new charter. He serves two five-year phrases as president.
UK troops deployed to Helmand
British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold within the south of the rustic.
Their preliminary undertaking is to strengthen reconstruction initiatives, however they’re temporarily drawn into battle operations. Greater than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the process the war.
US President Barack Obama approves a significant build up within the selection of troops despatched to Afghanistan. At their height, they quantity about 140,000.
The so-called “surge” is modelled on US technique in Iraq the place US forces focussed on protective the civilian inhabitants in addition to killing rebel combatants.
Osama Bin Encumbered killed
The chief of al-Qaeda is killed in an attack by way of US Military Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Encumbered’s frame is got rid of and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by way of the CIA. The affirmation that Bin Encumbered have been dwelling on Pakistani soil fuels accusations in the USA that Pakistan is an unreliable best friend within the warfare on terror.
Demise of Mullah Omar
The founding father of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His dying is stored secret for greater than two years.
Consistent with Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of well being issues at a health center within the Pakistani town of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was once within the nation.
Nato ends battle operations
At a rite in Kabul, Nato ends its battle operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the USA withdraws 1000’s of troops. Maximum of those that stay center of attention on coaching and supporting the Afghan safety forces.
The Taliban release a chain of suicide assaults, automotive bombings and different attacks. The parliament development in Kabul, and the town of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants start operations in Afghanistan.
Demise toll announcement
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says greater than 45,000 participants of his nation’s safety forces had been killed since he turned into chief in 2014. The determine is some distance upper than in the past concept.
US indicators take care of Taliban
America and the Taliban signal an “settlement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. America and Nato allies comply with withdraw all troops inside of 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.
Date for ultimate withdrawal
US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by way of 11 September 2021, precisely twenty years since 9/11. There are sturdy indications that the withdrawal could also be whole sooner than the respectable closing date.